||A gemstone, often a diamond, cut in a
narrow rectangular shape. Small diamonds cut this way are often used as accents. A tapered
baguette has one short end narrower than the opposite end, forming a trapezoid.
||A synthetic patented in 1909, bakelite,
also called catalin, was used in jewelry extensively during the U.S. Great Depression of
the 1930's. Bakelite can be molded, lathe-carved, and one color can be inlaid into
another, as in polka dots. The inlaid and carved pieces are especially popular with
collectors today. It has a distinct scent when rubbed to warm, somewhat like formaldehyde.
Watch for both outright repros, and later plastics from the last 20-30 years that might be
mistaken for bakelite by the inexperienced.
||An irregular, rounded stone, glass or
bead; also, an imitation pearl with an uneven or craggy shape and/or surface.
|Base metal, pot metal,
||Any combination of
alloys of non-precious metals.
||Another name for the Edwardian period.
||A method of setting gemstones in which
the stone is held in the mounting by a narrow band of metal surrounding the girdle
(outside perimeter) of the stone.
||Birthstones have their roots in ancient
astrology, and there have been many birthstone lists used over the years. The most common
one today is based on a list first publicized by the U.S. jewelry industry in the 1950s.
This list assign birthstones as follows:
- January - Garnet
- February - Amethyst
- March - Aquamarine
- April - Diamond
- May - Emerald
- June - Pearl or Moonstone
- July - Ruby
- August - Peridot
- September - Sapphire
- October - Opal
- November - Citrine or Topaz
- December - Turquoise or Zircon
||A Victorian style of chain in which the
links are rectangular, folded pieces of metal. Each link resembles a book. These book
chains often had large lockets attached, and the whole piece was often elaborately
engraved. They were made in gold, gold-filled and sterling silver.
||An alloy of copper and zinc which has a
nice yellow color.
|Britannia or pewter
||A somewhat dull silver-colored alloy of
tin, antimony, and copper.
||A brownish alloy of copper and tin that
is not used much in costume jewelry because it is very dense and therefore heavy.
||A stone with a rounded surface, rather
than with facets. This style is commonly used with opaque to translucent stones such as
opal, moonstone, jade and turquoise. Less expensive transparent stones such as amethyst
and garnet, are also sometimes fashioned as cabochons. A garnet cabochon is also referred
to as a carbuncle.
||Abbreviated "ct." and spelled
with a "c" is a measure of weight used for gemstones. One carat is equal to 1/5
of a gram (200 milligrams). Stones are measured to the nearest hundredth of a carat. A
hundredth of a carat is also called a point. Thus a .10 carat stone can be called
either 10 points, or 1/10 of a carat. Small stones like .05, and .10ct are most often
referred to by point designations. Note that karat with a "K" is a
measure of the purity of a gold alloy.
A one carat round
diamond of average proportions is approximately 6.5mm in diameter. Note that this
relationship of weight and size is different for each family of stones. For example ruby
and sapphire are both heavier than diamond (technically, they have a higher specific
gravity, so a 1 carat ruby or sapphire is smaller in size than a on carat diamond.
||A style of carving in which the design
motif is left and the surrounding surface is cut away leaving the design in relief. Cameos
in jewelry are often made of shell, although hard stone cameos such as sardonyx are more
valuable. Cameos have been carved from ancient times, and ancient motifs such as the
goddess Athena or a Baccante or follower of Bacchus were popular cameo subjects in
Victorian times, through the 1930's. Cameos are still being made today in Italy. A cameo
habille is one in which "jewelry" such as a miniature diamond pendant is
actually attached to the carving.
||Made by a centrifugal method of casting
metal which becomes thick and hard.
||One of the earliest plastics, celluloid
is derived from cellulose, a natural plant fiber, and was first synthesized around 1870.
Items commonly found today include hair combs, dresser articles. Celluloid items for wear
were often set with pave rhinestones. Celluloid is flammable and deteriorates easily if
exposed to moisture, so care should be taken in its use and storage.
||A gem setting technique in which a
number of square or rectangular stones are set side by side in a grooved channel. Unlike
most setting methods, the stones are not secured individually, so there is no metal
visible between the stones.
||Said to be from the French for
"Lady of the House", a chatelaine is a set of implements worn at the waist. A chatelaine
clip clip is fastened to the waist, and various items such as needle cases, pencil,
scissors, dangle from chains attached to it. Chatelaines may be utilitarian or beautifully
decorated and made from precious materials like silver.
||A short, close fitting necklace; like a
||A variety of quartz, citrine occurs in a
color range ranging from light yellow to a brilliant orange that may be confused with fine
||A silver-colored metal that is a mixture
of 80% silver and 20% copper. A lot of European silver pieces are coin silver and are
marked 800, the number of parts out of 1000 that are silver.
|Formed when small sea animals create
living quarters, coral comes in colors ranging from vivid orange to palest pink. During
the mid-Victorian large brooches of coral finely carved in high-relief floral sprays, or
faces were popular. At the turn of the century, small natural pieces of branch coral or
small cameos of coral were more popular.
|Small, soft metal beads that are
squeezed shut to secure loops of threading material fasteners onto clasps.
|A glass stone or bead, usually with high
||Etched: Very faintly carved
Lightly Carved: Faint carving
Medium Carved: Average depth carving
Deeply Carved: Deeper than average carving
Heavily Carved: Extremely deeply carved
Faceted: Carved with a regular pattern of facets
Grooved: Routed out in a line
Pierced: The material has been cut completely through
Inlaid: A space is routed out of the material, and a contrasting material is fitted
into that space. Bakelite polka dot bracelets are an excellent example of inlay technique.
||Diamonds, a form of crystalline carbon,
are prized because they are exceptionally hard and durable, have high refractivity and
brilliance, and because really fine diamonds are rare. Today diamonds are valued based on
the "4 C's" of color, cut, clarity and carat size. Many diamond imitations have
appeared over the years, with the most common today being the ubiquitous cubic zirconia
which appears similar to a diamond to the uninitiated, but can be readily distinguished by
a diamond tester which measures thermal inertia. Trained individuals, despite claims of
cubic zirconia manufacturers, also have little trouble distinguishing a genuine diamond
when it is examined under at least 10 power magnification.
||Faceted, glittery glass bead;
||A wide "choker" style necklace
worn tight around the neck above the collarbone just like a dog's collar, this look was
popular in Edwardian times, around the turn of the twentieth century. This look was
popularized by Queen Alexandra, who had a long graceful neck.
||A form of gemstone trickery that was
devised to allow inexpensive materials to imitate the more valuable gemstones before
modern synthetics were available. A doublet can take several forms but always involves a
fake gemstone produced by gluing together two different materials to form an illusion.
A very common one in Victorian times was the garnet and glass doublet.
This involved a red garnet top, glued to a colored glass bottom. The refractive properties
of a faceted stone are such that the red of the garnet only shows at odd angles, or if the
stone is immersed in a special liquid with a high refractive index. Thus, for example, a
green glass bottom with a garnet top will give the appearance of a fine emerald because
the top is a natural gemstone with cut facets, and a few natural imperfections, and the
bottom is bright green which reflects throughout the stone. The effect is hard to
appreciate unless you've seen one.
||A combination of two clips on a pin
back. Duette was a registered design by Coro, but is now used
generically for this design.
||Refers to the period during the reign
of Edward VII of England (1901-1910), but the style has it's beginnings during the final
years of Victoria's reign, and continued until shortly before World War I when the more
geometric influences later to be called Art Deco began to make headway.
In jewelry, this period was characterized by delicate filigree in white
gold and platinum, with diamonds and pearls predominating, and colored stones used less
frequently, producing a light, monochromatic look. Delicate bows, swags, and garland
effects were used in necklaces and brooches. Both dog collars, and long fringed necklaces
were also "in", being popularized by the graceful, long-necked Queen Alexandra.
||Jewelry can be mechanically plated with
gold in a variety of ways, including electroplated. Eventually, the gold plating wears
away, but it depends on how often the item is worn and how thick the plating is.
||A gemstone of the beryl family, fine
emeralds are among the most valuable gemstones. Unlike most gemstones, flaws (called inclusions
by gemologists )are quite common in emeralds, so they lower the value much less than with
other precious stones such a diamonds. The most highly prized emeralds are mined in
Columbia. A valuable emerald will be a bright, vividly colored green. Those with a slight
blue cast to the bright green are actually the most valuable color.
Many emeralds seen in jewelry are of relatively low quality. They are
often dyed or oiled to improve the color and minimize flaws. If an emerald appears to be
very fine, it may actually be a synthetic. There are several types of synthetic emeralds
on the market, and some of them are challenging to identify, even for a trained
||To decorate metal by gouging a design
with graver's tools; embellishing metal or other material with patterns using a stamping
tool or drill. This was a popular technique in mid-Victorian
jewelry. The resulting depressions were often filled with colored enamel. Also refers to
inscribing a dedication or monogram to identify a piece. Stamped pieces can be designed to
imitate hand engraving. Under magnification, the design is much more sharp in a hand
engraved piece, with subtle irregularities.
||In its simplest terms, all enamel is
produced by fusing colored powdered glass to metal to produce a vitreous or glass-like,
decorative surface. The enamel may be translucent with fancy engraving on the metal
underneath, which produces guilloche (ghee-YOSH) enamel. Popular during during the
mid-Victorian period was a solid black blue or white enamel used to fill engraved
Enamel is a decorative technique in which a
glass "paste" is applied to the surface of a metal--normally bronze, copper or
gold. This glass composition adheres to the metal through fusion under very high
temperatures. The color of the enamel and its degree of transparency depend on the metal
oxides that exist in the glass and the temperature at which the glass melts and coheres to
"Harder"=fused at higher temperatures=more durable,
"Softer"=fused at lower temperatures=more fragile, more opaque
||The style of diamond cutting popular
from approximately 1890 to the 1930s. Unlike the old mine cut preceding it, the European
cut has a round girdle (perimeter) made possible by the introduction of the power bruiting
machine (Bruiting is the term for shaping the girdle of a diamond, the first step in the
cutting process). The European cut can be distinguished by the size of the table (the top,
flat facet) in relation to the diameter of the stone. In a European cut, the table is
smaller in relation to the diameter of the stone. Also, the culet (the bottom facet, is
often large, often appearing to create a hole at the bottom of the diamond, when viewed
from the top, since the large culet lets light escape instead of reflecting back to the
||A wire finding with a loop at one end.
used for linking beads or beaded links together
||Cut with many facets or planes.
||Pronounced: fo (like go) Faux is a
French word used to describe something made to resemble something else. The original
French word means false, fake, imitation or artificial. Faux marble looks like marble.
Faux bois looks like wood. Faux porphyry looks like stone.
||An amulet, pendant or charm often
representing an animal or person.
||A technique used to produce fine
intricate patterns in metal. Often used for metal beads, clasps, and bead caps.
||All types of fasteners, and construction
components used in jewelry making.
||Finish has a brushed or striated
||A short chain with a decorative seal or
other device attached to the end. The fob and chain hung outside watch pocket, and could
be used to pull the watch out of the pocket.
||A method of coating the back of a stone
with silver, gold, or colored foil. This enhances the brilliancy of the stone, by
reflecting back as much light as possible. It is commonly seen in costume jewelry. A
foilbacked rhinestone whose foil has been damaged (often from water creeping in) does not
sparkle anymore and is said to be a "dead" stone, lowering the value of the
piece. Before, modern, highly reflective cuts were developed, even diamonds were
||Black glass fashioned to imitate real
jet. Glass is heavier than real jet, and can feel cold to the touch compared to real jet.
||A pearl produced by a mollusk that
inhabits freshwater, usually these pearls are shaped like an uneven grain of rice. There
is also a variety called Tennessee fresh water pearls that taper like a long tooth, as in
the illustrated 1940's brooch.
||A group stones that share a similar
chemical structure, the garnet family includes pyrope, almandine, and demantoid, among
others. Almandine garnet are red varieties, with pyrope being the common Bohemian garnet
found in much Victorian and turn of the century jewelry. Demantoid garnet is a much rarer
bright green variety, first mined in the mid-nineteenth century. Demantoid has the highest
dispersion of colored stones usually found on the market, which means it is very sparkly.
Demantoid is generally found only relatively small stones.
||Include diamond, brilliant, beryl,
emerald chalcedony, agate, heliotrope; onyx, plasma; tourmaline, chrysolite; sapphire,
ruby, synthetic ruby; spinel, spinelle; oriental topaz; turquoise, zircon, cubic zirconia;
jacinth, hyacinth, carbuncle, amethyst; alexandrite, cat's eye, bloodstone, hematite,
jasper, moonstone, sunstone.
||It is common to see the following words
when describing costume jewelry: amethyst, diamond, garnet, emerald, ruby,
sapphire. These words should not be interpreted to mean the
precious stones with these names. The terms are used only to describe the color of the
non-precious stones. If the genuine stone is meant, it is usually indicated with the word genuine
in the description. This general rule also applies to words for metals, such as gold,
silver, copper, and pewter. When used to describe costume jewelry, they mean
gold-tone, pewter colored, etc.
||Since ancient times, gold has been
prized for its beauty, and purity since it does not oxidize or tarnish like most other
metals. It has also been used as a store of value to build wealth and shield against hard
times. Gold used in jewelry is almost always alloyed with other metals since gold in its
pure form is very soft and malleable, and would not wear well by itself. Much gold jewelry
from the 19th century and before is not marked. Tests must be done to determine if it is
solid gold and to determine purity.
The familiar Karat
marking system used in the United States did not become popular until around 1890 or so.
(Note that Karat with a "K" refers to gold purity, while Carat with a
"C" refers to the weight of a gemstone, e.g. a one carat diamond set in a 14
karat gold ring.) The karat number refers to the parts of pure gold per 24 in the alloy.
So a 14K alloy is 14/24 parts pure gold, or about 58% gold.
Other countries used a marking system well before the United
States. For example, Britain has had a system of hallmarking in place for hundreds of
It is also common in many European and other countries to mark
gold with a three digit number indicating the parts per thousand of gold. Thus gold
jewelry is often marked "750" for 750/1000 gold. (Equivalent to US 18K).
In addition to many purities, alloyed gold also comes in many
colors. Variations in the metals alloyed with the gold account for the ability to produce
white, pink and even green gold, in addition to the familiar yellow gold. Pink gold was
popular in late Victorian times, and again in the 1940s. White gold was very popular from
1900 through the 30's.
||Goldfilled, or gold-filled,
abbreviated g.f. = lower in gold content than 10 KT, usually 1/20 or 1/12 KT.In
this technique a sheet of gold is mechanically applied to the surface. Victorian pieces
are likely to be unmarked, but later pieces are marked with the fineness of the gold
layer, and the part by weight of the gold. For example a piece marked "1/10 12K
G.F." is composed of at least 1/10 12K gold based on the weight of the finished
piece. In the U.S., gold filled pieces must be at least 1/20 by weight to be classified as
gold-filled. An older unmarked gold piece may often be identified by wear through to base
metal, especially when viewing corners or edges under magnification. Look for a change to
a darker, brassy colored material at these spots.
||A layer of gold applied to base metal,
usually by electroplating. This is usually a very thin layer, only a few microns, which is
likely to wear much more quickly than gold-filled.
||Gold colored or electro-plated, not gold
as in measurable in karats.
||"Gold washed" describes
products that have an extremely thin electroplating of gold (less than .175 microns
thick). This will wear away more quickly than gold plate, gold-filled, or gold
electroplate. The gold is applied by either dipping or burnishing the metal, but it
is not plated.
||In the mid-19th century lockets of hair
of loved ones were often preserved under glass in brooches. The hair was sometimes
intricately curled or woven, and these pieces are often inscribed on the back to identify
the donors. Later in the century, hair was woven into watch chains, bracelets, even
earrings and given as tokens of affection. All forms of hair jewelry are very collectible
|A design carved down into a gemstone,
unlike a cameo in which the design is raised from it's background, in relief. This
technique was often used for seals, which made an impression in wax used to seal a letter
or authenticate a document. It is also common on watch fobs, since the watch fob was
originally a good place to carry a seal. Once seals fell out of use, the intaglio tended
to face out to the viewer rather than down as on a seal. Some of the most commonly found
Victorian intaglios are carved in Carnelian, an orange-brown variety of quartz.
|A metal and member of the platinum
family, it is often alloyed with platinum to improve workability, thus you will find
pieces marked something like "90% Plat. 10% Irrid" to indicate that the alloy is
90 % platinum and 10% iridium.
|A form of fossilized coal that became
popular for mourning jewelry after Queen Victoria's husband, Albert died in 1861. Produced
mainly in Whitby, England, it is a very lightweight substance. Black glass was often used
to imitate jet which became a fashion item, not just for mourning.
|Ornaments worn by people on the body
[Fr]; trinket; fine jewelry; costume jewelry, junk jewelry; gem, gemstone, precious
stone. Forms of jewelry: necklace, bracelet, anklet; earring; locket, pendant, charm
bracelet; ring, pinky ring; carcanet, chain, chatelaine; broach, pin, lapel pin, torque.
|A small wire ring, not soldered shut,
used to link elements of jewelry.
||NO 'K' TERMS AT THIS TIME
|Cutting, shaping, polishing and creating
jewelry from precious and semi-precious stones.
|Jewelry materials derived from living
organisms: pearl, cultured pearl, fresh-water pearl; mother of pearl; coral.
Lost Wax Casting
|A model is made of wax and coated with
clay. The wax is melted and poured out from the shape that can then be used to cast metal.
|Popular in the 1940's for ladies purses
and jewelry, lucite is a clear, strong plastic that can be molded and carved.
|An oval stone which is pointed at both
ends, also called navette. Also, a stone cut in a boat shape, pointed at both ends, with
rounded sides. Note that the correct pronunciation is "Mar-KEYS", not
"Mar-KEY" which is commonly heard.
|Means "thousand flowers" in
Italian. A method of creating glass or clay beads with intricate patterns using canes.
|A style of diamond cutting popular
before 1890 or so, it features a cushion shaped outline, rather than the round outline of
the modern cut and old European cuts, and has a different facet arrangement.
Mabe' or Mobe'
|A half sphere or domed stone, usually a
|An oval stone which is pointed at both
|A white metal mixture of copper, zinc,
and nickel which contains no silver.
|A piece of jewelry that
has open areas, see-through, similar to filigree cut.
||A suite of matching jewelry consisting
of several pieces. Commonly, a set of three or more matching pieces; three of either
earrings, bracelet, and necklace, or pin/brooch. In Victorian
times, a complete parure consisted of two matching bracelets, necklace, earrings and a
brooch. Note that before wristwatches became widely worn, it was quite common to wear two
||A term for imitation gemstones. Fine
jewelry was often imitated in finely made copies to protect the wearer from theft, and
these were referred to as "paste".
||As a general term, patina refers to the
change in an object's surface resulting from natural aging. (Patina preservation is the
reason to avoid all but very superficial cleaning of old objects.) In bronze sculpture,
patina specifically refers to the surface of the bronze itself often altered by the
sculptor with acid or the application of other chemicals.
||(pah-VAY) very tightly set stones, as in
a pavement; a gem setting technique in which the stones are
set low and very closely spaced, so that the surface appears to be paved with gemstones.
Most commonly seen with diamonds, but may be used with any stone.
||A natural gemstone
formed when a oyster is irritated by a substance that gets into its shell. If the
irritation is a naturally occurring grain of sand, it is an Oriental pearl. If it is
produced by purposefully inserting a mother-of-pearl bead, a cultured pearl is formed. A
pearl that forms attached to the shell is a blister pearl, while a pearl that forms a half
dome is a mabe (pronounced mah-bay) pearl. Pearls that are irregularly shaped rather than
round are referred to as baroque.
||Recipes are available to make beads that
release a scent when warmed by the body.
||Pewter items are described and marked as
such if they contain at least 90% tin. Also, a somewhat dull silver-colored alloy of tin,
antimony, and copper.
||Same as open work.
||A form of cloisonné in which the enamel
in the cells has no backing, producing a translucent effect. This technique was used to
good effect by Rene' Lalique and others during the Art Nouveau period to depict dragonfly
wings and other translucent objects.
||Pot metal is a term used to cover many,
many different mixtures which do
not have gold, silver, or platinum as a major component.
||Stones set with individual prongs
holding them in place.
||NO 'Q' TERMS AT THIS TIME
||The Victorians loved romantic symbols,
and rings or brooches set with a Ruby, Emerald, Garnet, Amethyst, Ruby, and a Diamond so
that the first letter of each gemstone spelled out "Regard" were given as a
token of affection in early Victorian times.
||A glass stone, facetted to imitate a
diamond. In German, it is called Strass, after the man who popularized it.
||A metal that is part of the platinum
family. Silver, gold, and even base metals were often Rhodium plated during the 30's and
40's to give them the white, shiny look associated with platinum. Genuine rhodium in raw
state is liquid. Although in the platinum family of metals, it is not the same as platinum
which is a solid precious metal.
||A thin plating of rhodium, which is one
of the members of the platinum family, applied over either sterling or other alloy to give
a bright, shiny, longlasting silver-colored finish to a piece.
||A recent designation for the period in
the forties when when large scale, stylized geometric forms were the rage. Pink gold, set
with colored stones, sometimes in floral forms was common.
||A precious gemstone, and a member of
the corundum family, rubies are always, by definition, red, but be aware that many other
red gemstones and imitations might be assumed to be a ruby. Fine rubies of good color can
be more valuable than diamonds, but the first synthetic ruby was created in the 1890's and
became quite popular in jewelry. Synthetic rubies must be distinguished from natural by
sophisticated testing by trained gemologists.
||Prior to 1900 or so, brooches had a
simple "C" catch with no locking mechanism, and the pin often extended out
beyond the "C" far enough to weave back into clothing for security. At the turn
of the century several "safety catches" were invented and came into common used
for better jewelry, so a piece that exhibits a safety catch was made in the twentieth
century. (Consider the possibility, however, that an old catch was replaced at some point,
and look for evidence of this.)
||A gemstone of the corundum family,
although blue is the color most commonly associated with sapphires, they come in a range
of colors from white to orange to green to pink. In fact, if a corundum gemstone is red,
it is referred to as a ruby, but any other color, including the light pinkish
"rubies" in inexpensive jewelry are properly referred to as sapphires. Sapphires
were first synthesized in the 1920's, so it takes an expert to determine if a sapphire is
natural. Natural sapphires are sometimes found that exhibit a star effect. These can be
quite valuable if the star is centered and well-defined, but in 1967 the synthetic Linde
Star Sapphire hit the market, and many star sapphires found today are these synthetics.
||(Soh-TWAH) a long rope style necklace,
often with a tassel or pendant at the end, these were popularized in the Edwardian era
because Edward's Queen Alexandra often wore them.
|Refers to a very small round pearl or a
very small imitation pearl, or f.pearl. These were strung on horsehair and used in
intricately woven jewelry during the early-mid Victorian period. In the late Victorian
period accents set into gold jewelry. During the Edwardian period, they were sometimes
woven into long fringed necklaces called sautoirs.
|Silver plated or coated, not sterling
|Small base metal finding resembling a
|925 parts silver, legal standard.
800 or less amount of silver is known as silver parts, as marked on the jewelry, not
||(TAHKS' coh) The small town in Mexico
where William Spratling, an American set up his workshop in 1929. Many other silversmiths
eventually set up shop here making Taxco the center of silversmithing in Mexico. Much
silver is made in Taxco to this day, but the earlier silver , up to about 1970 is
considered collectible. In 1979 the government began to require silversmiths to stamp a
registration mark consisting of two letters and several numbers, and this mark should be
found on nearly on newer pieces.
||The high pronged setting most common
today for large stones such as a diamond solitaire, this setting was introduced by Tiffany
& Co. in 1886.
||A popular material for 19th century
jewelry and haircombs, tortoiseshell was banned and is no longer used for these items.
There are very close plastic imitations of tortoiseshell. One technique to differentiate
tortoise from its imitators is to touch the surface with a hot pinpoint. Tortoise will
give off a smell like burning hair, while plastic will emit and acrid, chemical odor.
||Gold and silver are measured in Troy
weight, a system that includes pennyweights, ounces and pounds. The ounces and pounds do
not equal the Avordupois or customary U.S. system that other common goods are measured in.
Gold is also commonly measured in metric grams. A pennyweight (abbreviated dwt.) is equal
to 1.5552 grams.
- 24 grains = 1 pennyweight = 1.5552 grams
- 20 pennyweight = 1 troy ounce = 31.1035 grams
- 12 ounces = 1 pound troy = 373.24 grams.
||Turquoise is a semi-precious gemstone
found in desert regions throughout the world. All the cultures use it--Mongolian, Chinese,
Native Australian, Persian & Southwestern Native American. It is considered a
source of good fortune and beauty. If you see brown or grey streaks in turquoise,
they are caused bythe matrix, or mother stone, from which the turquoise is mined.
Interesting matrix patterns are considered to add beauty to the stone.
Only Persian turquoise is usually without apparent matrix. Modern turquoise
"stones" that appear very shiny and absolutely flawless are actually
manufactured: Pulverized turquoise is reconstituted with a plastic binding medium then cut
& shaped as though it were natural stone. This material is generally avoided by
collectors. Different colors of turquoise--varying from sky blue to nearly green
occur in untreated turquoise, since it is quite porous. Touching the stone leaves oils on
it which alters the color of the turquoise over many years. Collectors tend to value these
color nuances as the patina of time.
||NO 'U' TERMS AT THIS TIME
||(Vehr-MAY) Silver with gold plating.
||A hard, moldable dark brown or black
early plastic sometimes erroneously called "gutta percha". This material was
used for memorial pieces in the mid-Victorian period.
||The designation given to the period
from approximately 1837 when Victoria became Queen of England until 1901 when she died.
This long period is divided into early (approx. 1840-1860), mid (approx. 1860 - 1880) and
late (approx. 1880-1900) since it covers a wide span of time, and a number of distinctive
design trends. This period was preceded by the Georgian period, and succeeded by the
Edwardian period after Victoria died in 1901, and her son Edward became king
||NO 'W' TERMS AT THIS TIME
||NO 'X' TERMS AT THIS TIME
||NO 'Y' TERMS AT THIS TIME
||NO 'Z' TERMS AT THIS TIME